Buckinghamshire Partnerships

Adult Exploitation

Adult Exploitation


Buckinghamshire Safeguarding Adults Board has signed up to the Buckinghamshire Adult Exploitation Strategy, recognising that Adults are exploiated in a vareity of ways inlcuding:-

Adult Exploitation Strategy


Buckinghamshire Safeguarding Adults Board has developed a free E learning programme which you might want to access via http://www.buckssafeguarding.org.uk/elearning-list. There is also a document called Typology of Modern Slavery offences which organisations might find useful from the Home Office.

 The Local Government Association has also brought a new guidance for Local Authorities around Modern Slavery and their role within preventing and addressing the issue in a new document "Tackling Modern Slavery"

Modern Slavery

Slavery continues today in every country in the world. Women forced into prostitution. People forced to work in agriculture, domestic work and factories. Children in sweatshops producing goods sold globally. Entire families forced to work for nothing to pay off generational debts. Girls married off to older men

 Purposes of exploitation can range from forced prostitution and forced labour to forced marriage and forced organ removal. Here are the most common forms of modern slavery.

  • Forced labour – any work or services which people are forced to do against their will under the threat of some form of punishment.
  • Debt bondage or bonded labour – the world’s most widespread form of slavery, when people borrow money they cannot repay and are required to work to pay off the debt, then losing control over the conditions of both their employment and the debt.
  • Human trafficking– involves transporting, recruiting or harbouring people for the purpose of exploitation, using violence, threats or coercion.
  • Descent-based slavery – where people are born into slavery because their ancestors were captured and enslaved; they remain in slavery by descent.
  • Child slavery – many people often confuse child slavery with child labour, but it is much worse. Whilst child labour is harmful for children and hinders their education and development, child slavery occurs when a child is exploited for someone else’s gain. It can include child trafficking, child soldiers, child marriage and child domestic slavery.
  • Forced and early marriage – when someone is married against their will and cannot leave the marriage. Most child marriages can be considered slavery

What to do if you think someone is a victim of Modern Slavery

Modern slavery is a complex crime and may involve multiple forms of exploitation. Victims may not be aware that they are being trafficked or exploited, and may have consented to elements of their exploitation, or accepted their situation. If you think that modern slavery has taken place, the case should be referred to the NRM so that a competent authority can fully consider the case. You don’t need to be certain that someone is a victim.


 If the person who you think is the Modern Slavery does not want to be referred to the NRM you still have a duty to send in a referral but this will not contain the person's name, this is for statistical purposes. For further details on your duties please read the Reporting Guidance document or speak to your line manager.

National Referral Mechanism Form

If you do not belong to any of the above agencies then if you think you have encountered a person who has been a victim of modern slavery in England and Wales, you should complete the NRM referral form and send it to the relevant competent authority, see list above.

Adults will only be accepted into the NRM if the consent section of the form has been completed. Informed consent requires that the potential victim have the NRM, the referral process, and potential outcomes, clearly explained to them.

Wider Adult Exploitation includes:-

  • Radicalisation
  • Fraud and Scams
  • County Lines
  • Mate Crime/Cuckooing
  • Delayed reporting (e.g CSE)


  1. Radicalization (or radicalisation) is a process by which an individual or group comes to adopt increasingly extreme political, social, or religious ideals and aspirations that (1) reject or undermine the status quo or (2) reject and/or undermine contemporary ideas and expressions of freedom of choice.
    In Buckinghamshire there is a Channel panel, Channel is a multi-agency group of public sector agencies including Thames Valley Police, the Clinical Commissioning Groups, Youth Offending Service, Mental Health Trust and the Probation Service. The group also draws in other representatives on a case or by case basis when it is relevant to do so.

    It is co-chaired by the County Council (a Head of Service in Children’s Services) and Thames Valley Police.

    The aim of the panel is to protect and divert individuals away from radicalisation and to do so before they have been drawn into terrorism. In doing so, the intended outcome is that both the individual and the wider community are kept safe.

    Individuals referred to the Panel are assessed to see what risk they pose to themselves and to others and a plan is drawn up to support them. Referrals can come from a variety of sources, for examples, schools, the local authority, the community and the police.

    If you would like to learn more about this, please have a look at the training available or see the Channel guidance published by the National Police Chiefs’ Council (formerly the Association of Police Chief Officers). There is also a leaflet that provides an overview of how channel works for professionals.

    Alternatively you can contact one of Prevent leads in Buckinghamshire or you can make a referral into safeguarding. For information about how to do this, see the Prevent Information Sheet below or contact communities@buckscc.gov.uk.